One of the major goals of eSTICC is to collect data resources related to climate research at high Northern latitudes under one umberella. The data that was produced within eSTICC and within the three Nordic Centres of Excellence preceding eSTICC (CRAICC, DEFROST and SVALI) form the core of this data, but various other sources of climate data are relevant for Nordic climate research. This page serves as a portal for accessing data and tools.
Data sets produced within eSTICC
The data set includes concentrations of oxidized gaseous compounds measured at a boreal forest site, Hyytiälä, Finland, during 2016-2017. The measured compounds include sulfuric acid, iodic acid, malonic acid and different oxidation products of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and isoprene. The measurements were performed using a nitrate ion based chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) .
This collection of datasets contains the homogenised hourly mean aerosol number size distributions in the dry diameter range of 20 to 500 nm from five sites around the Arctic Ocean; Zeppelin (Svalbard), Station Nord (Greenland), Alert (Canada), Barrow (Alaska) and Tiksi (Siberia). The datasets are filtered for local pollution and covers at least two full years. Full description of the measurement setup, sites and the processing of the data can be found in Freud et al. (2017).
Databases and data analysis tools
A database hosting a large number of aerosol observations (including satellite data from MODIS, POLDER, MISR, AVHHR, ATSR/AATSR, SEAWIFS, TOMS) and results from more than 20 global models from AeroCom experiments since 2002. Model data comparisons are displayed via the AeroCom web interface organised by projects and experiment families. New model data submissions from Nordic centers are supported with the AeroCom/ESTICC reformatting tools.
The AMWG diagnostics package produces over 600 plots and tables from CCSM (CAM) monthly netcdf files. The diagnostics package computes climatological means of the simulations and produced plots and tables of the mean climate in a variety of formats. The diagnostics package can be used to compare two CCSM (CAM) model simulations or for comparing a model simulation to the observational and reanalysis data. (Information about the AMWG datasets can be found in the Climate Data Guide.). Its routinely used in ESTICC for instance to analyse the NorESM model simulations.
A database containing a large range of climate-relevant data sets hosted at the Bolin Centre for climate research in Sweden. The database contains data related to various aspects of the climate system, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere as well as exchange between these compartments.
CIS is an open source command-line tool for easy collocation, visualization, analysis, and comparison of diverse gridded and ungridded datasets used in the atmospheric sciences.
To respond to UNFCCC and GCOS need for climate data, the European Space Agency (ESA) has undertaken the Climate Change Initiative programme. The objective of the Climate Change Initiative is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA together with its Member states have established over the last thirty years, as a significant and timely contribution to the ECV databases required by UNFCCC. It ensures that full capital is derived from ongoing and planned ESA missions, including ERS, Envisat, the Earth Explorer missions, relevant ESA-managed archives of Third-Party Mission data and the Sentinel constellation.The programme undertakes the activities necessary to meet its objective of supporting the UNFCCC through the GCOS defined ECVs. This includes the periodic processing of the EO data sets applying the most up-to-date algorithms, plus development of improved algorithms for the ECV production from emerging data sources consistent with the long-term record.
By coordinating the design and distribution of global climate model simulations of the past, current, and future climate, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has become one of the foundational elements of climate science. However, the need to address an ever-expanding range of scientific questions arising from more and more research communities has made it necessary to revise the organization of CMIP. After a long and wide community consultation, a new and more federated structure has been put in place. It consists of three major elements: (1) a handful of common experiments, the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) and CMIP historical simulations (1850–near present) that will maintain continuity and help document basic characteristics of models across different phases of CMIP; (2) common standards, coordination, infrastructure, and documentation that will facilitate the distribution of model outputs and the characterization of the model ensemble; and (3) an ensemble of CMIP-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) that will be specific to a particular phase of CMIP (now CMIP6) and that will build on the DECK and CMIP historical simulations to address a large range of specific questions and fill the scientific gaps of the previous CMIP phases.
CRAICC objectives were
- To identify and quantify the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms
- To outline strategies to mitigate Arctic warming
- To develop Nordic Earth System modeling
- FOCUS: short-lived climate forcers (SLCF), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols
The majority of the data collected in CRAICC are openly available through the links on this page, e.g. EBAS and SmartSMEAR databases.
A database hosting observations of atmospheric chemical composition and physical properties. Data are submitted by data originators in support of a number of national and international programmes, ranging from monitoring activities to research projects.
EddyUH is a new software for post-processing eddy covariance data. The software is a MATLAB based program with a graphical user interface.
WebDab is the open emission database of EMEP (Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe). Emissions on Main Pollutants, Heavy Metals, Persistent Organic Pollutants and Particulate Matter are available as totals/sectors and as gridded emissions both for officially reported data and gap-filled emissions. WebDab contains all emission data officially submitted to the secretariat of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) by Parties to the Convention.
ESMValTool: A community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP.
DEFROST conducted ecological and biogeochemical studies in a set of arctic and subarctic terrestrial and lacustrine ecosystems, as well as on sea ice and in the Arctic Ocean. The data include in-situ automatic and manual mass and isotope flux measurements of CO2 and CH4, energy fluxes, field manipulation experiments, laboratory incubations, landscape-scale modeling and up-scaling, and subsea permafrost simulations. Ancillary field measurements include, among others, soil organic carbon content, ground temperatures, climate variables, surface structure, soil moisture, snowpack variables, active layer depths, vegetation composition.
Flux data available through the FluxNet network: https://fluxnet.ornl.gov ; Raw data available on INTERACT server: Access provided by Marcin.Jackowicz-Korczynski@nateko.lu.se ; More fluxes and ancillary data in the database of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring program: http://data.g-e-m.dk ;Different processing software for eddy covariance fluxes available at: https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/Eddy_Covariance/EddyUHsoftware.php
Throughout the Arctic there is substantial concern about climate change and the effects upon the arctic ecosystem, which is the basis for most of the people and societies in the Arctic. The Arctic Council has initiated multiple initiatives to monitor and investigate the environmental effects in the Arctic. Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) is one of the contributions from the Kingdom of Denmark, including Greenland. GEM consist of five sub-programmes and a number of strategic cross cutting initiatives that also include collaborations with other complimentary operational monitoring and research activities.
This database contains a wide range of atmospheric data from ten observatories at different Arctic locations. The data includes various meteorological parameters, exchange fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere, and aerosol and cloud data.
ICOS is a pan-European research infrastructure for quantifying and understanding the greenhouse gas balance of the Europe and its neighbouring regions. ICOS provides long term and high quality observations. ICOS Carbon Portal offers access to research data, as well as easily accessible and understandable science and education products.All measurement data available in the Carbon Portal is quality controlled through the ICOS thematic centers, divided into Ecosystem, Atmospheric and Ocean Thematic Centers and a Central Analytical laboratory. The ICOS Carbon Portal is hosted by the University of Lund (Sweden) and Wageningen University (Netherlands) and is located in Lund, Sweden.
Research Infrastructure Network for Nordic Atmospheric and Earth System Science (Nordic ENVRI) is a network project of researchers and RI coordinators who are engaged in the planning and construction of the Europes major environmental RIs. Nordic ENVRI is funded by NordForsk (project no 69145). This project brings together Nordic research infrastructure (RI) representatives of ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), ACTRIS (Aerosol, Clouds, Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), AnaEE (Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems) and SIOS (Svalbard Integrated Observation System)
The Ogive optimization toolbox for Matlab has been developed for the purpose of assisting researchers derive surface fluxes in challenging environments.
The PCMDI Metrics Package (PMP, Gleckler et al. (2016)) includes a diverse suite of summary statistics to objectively gauge the level of agreement between model simulations and observations across a broad range of space and time scales. It is built on the Python and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), a powerful software tool kit that provides cutting-edge data management, diagnostic and visualization capabilities.
SmartSMEAR is data visualization and download tool for the database of continuous atmospheric, flux, soil, tree physiological and water quality measurements at SMEAR research stations of the University of Helsinki. Air mass back-trajectories are also provided for studying the connection between air mass movements and atmospheric observations at the stationary measurement sites. Large fraction of SMEAR-data collected and for CRAICC are accessible through SmartSMEAR.
SVALI metadata catalogue contains links to all significant data sets collected within SVALI and the necessary links and contacts for retrieving the data.
Models used in Nordic framework
NordicESM stands for the Nordic Infrastructure for Earth System Modeling. The overall objective of NordicESM is to develop a common Nordic platform as well as a future roadmap, for collaboration on the use and development of Earth System Models for studies of environmental change at high Northern latitudes.
EC-Earth is an Earth System Model that generates reliable in-house predictions and projections of global climate change, which are a prerequisite to support the development of national adaptation and mitigation strategies. EC-Earth is developed as part of a Europe-wide consortium thus promoting international cooperation and access to wide knowledge and data base. It further enables fruitful interactions between academic institutions and the European climate impact community. EC-Earth made successful contributions to international climate change projections such as CMIP5. Ongoing development by the consortium will ensure that increasingly more reliable projections can be offered to decision and policy makers at regional, national and international levels. A new version of EC-Earth is under development and the consortium plans to participate in CMIP6. EC-Earth welcomes additional partners.
ECHAM-HAMMOZ is a comprehensive 3-dimensional chemistry climate model which has been jointly developed by:
- Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg
- Forschungszentrum Jülich
- Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
- Center for Climate Systems Modeling
- University of Oxford
- Finnish Meteorological Institute
The model consists of the global general circulation model ECHAM6, the aerosol chemistry and microphysics package HAM with additional parameterisations for aerosol-cloud interactions, and the atmospheric chemistry model MOZART.
NorESM is the Norwegian Earth System model. The model is based on the CESM framework. NorESM has special features developed by Norwegian researchers, like the ocean component, biogeochemistry, aerosol and chemistry modules.